Home / Reality Check / The Day General Grant Expelled the Jews
Print Friendly and PDF

The Day General Grant Expelled the Jews

Written by Gary North on December 11, 2012

Gary North’s Reality Check (Dec. 11, 2012)

In less than one week, no one will be publicly celebrating the sesquicentennial of one of the oddest events in American history: General Grant’s expulsion of the Jews from his military district on December 17, 1862.

Jonathan D. Sarna, who teaches history at Brandeis University, has written a book on this event, one which gets no space in high school and college textbooks on American history: When General Grant Expelled the Jews (2012).

In the weeks prior to Lincoln’s issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation, which emancipated no slaves, General Grant grew weary of Jews who violated the government’s price controls on cotton. He wrote a letter to C. P. Wolcott, the Assistant Secretary of War, dated December 17, 1862.

I have long since believed that in spite of all the vigilance that can be infused into Post Commanders, that the Specie regulations of the Treasury Dept. have been violated, and that mostly by Jews and other unprincipled traders. So well satisfied of this have I been at this that I instructed the Commdg Officer at Columbus [Kentucky] to refuse all permits to Jews to come south, and frequently have had them expelled from the Dept. [of the Tennessee]. But they come in with their Carpet sacks in spite of all that can be done to prevent it. The Jews seem to be a privileged class that can travel any where. They will land at any wood yard or landing on the river and make their way through the country. If not permitted to buy Cotton themselves they will act as agents for someone else who will be at a Military post, with a Treasury permit to receive Cotton and pay for it in Treasury notes which the Jew will buy up at an agreed rate, paying gold.There is but one way that I know of to reach this case. That is for Government to buy all the Cotton at a fixed rate and send it to Cairo, St Louis, or some other point to be sold. Then all traders, they are a curse to the Army, might be expelled..

I mean, what can you expect from people who had decided that fiat money issued by Congress — greenbacks — was not as good as gold? Just because the greenbacks traded at a discount to gold’s price was not proof that they were not as good as gold. No, sir. It was the fault of “unprincipled traders,” who in some way — no one is quite sure — colluded with one another, thereby driving the price of greenbacks down.

These people refused to let the government buy cotton at a fixed price. They bid up the price and bought it out from under the military. Can you imagine anyone doing such a thing?

So, Grant decided to nip this in the bud.

General Order Number 11, December 17, 18621. The Jews, as a class, violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department, and also Department orders, are hereby expelled from the Department.

2. Within twenty-four hours from the receipt of this order by Post Commanders, they will see that all of this class of people are furnished with passes and required to leave, and anyone returning after such notification, will be arrested and held in confinement until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished with permits from these headquarters.

3. No permits will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application for trade permits.

The Wikipedia article on this order goes into considerable detail on the background of this order.

On November 9, 1862, Grant sent an order to Major-General Stephen A. Hurlbut: “Refuse all permits to come south of Jackson for the present. The Israelites especially should be kept out.” The following day he instructed General Joseph Dana Webster: “Give orders to all the conductors on the [rail]road that no Jews are to be permitted to travel on the railroad southward from any point. They may go north and be encouraged in it; but they are such an intolerable nuisance that the department must be purged of them.”In a letter to General William Tecumseh Sherman, Grant wrote that his policy was occasioned “in consequence of the total disregard and evasion of orders by Jews.”Grant tightened restrictions to try to reduce the illegal trade. On December 8, 1862, he issued General Order No. 2, mandating that “cotton-speculators, Jews and other Vagrants having not honest means of support, except trading upon the miseries of their Country … will leave in twenty-four hours or they will be sent to duty in the trenches.”

Grant was not alone in his disgust for Jews “as a class,” who continued to seek out ways to satisfy free market demand in cotton. His colleague, William Tecumseh Sherman, had spotted the same practices. In a letter from Union-occupied Memphis, July 30, 1862; he wrote:

I found so many Jews and speculators here trading in cotton, and secessionists had become so open in refusing anything but gold, that I have felt myself bound to stop it. The gold can have but one use — the purchase of arms and ammunition. . . . Of course, I have respected all permits by yourself or the Secretary of the Treasury, but in these new cases, I have stopped it.

Gold had lots of uses, both north and south of the Mason-Dixon line. Both domestic currencies sold at a discount to gold. Residents on both sides recognized that gold was sound money and fiat money was not.

Grant’s order was enforced.

The order went into immediate effect; Army officers ordered Jewish traders and their families in Holly Springs, Oxford, Mississippi, and Paducah, Kentucky to leave the territory. Grant may not have intended such results; his headquarters expressed no objection to the continued presence of Jewish sutlers, as opposed to cotton traders. But, the wording of the order addressed all Jews, regardless of occupation, and it was implemented accordingly.

There were about 150,000 Jews in the United States.

Immediately, a group of Jews in Kentucky sent a telegram to Lincoln. Other Jews did, too. In December, the Kentucky group sent a delegation to Washington. They met with Lincoln on January 3. He told General Halleck to have Grant repeal the order. Grant complied. He revoked it on January 17.

Jews, as specialists in the market, saw profit opportunities in the discounting of fiat money. In sophisticated markets, this is designated as arbitrage. It means buying low and selling high. Jews bought and sold for sound money, giving up fiat money in exchange. For this, the military authorities despised these entrepreneurs.

The South’s politicians had similar views. The issue was the same: cotton. The South, in the greatest bonehead move in the history of the Confederacy, had imposed an embargo on cotton exports. This order came on November 17, 1861. The South’s politicians thought they could force Great Britain to recognize the Confederacy if the South stopped exporting cotton. They knew this would bankrupt cotton goods manufacturing firms. But British manufacturers had been stockpiling cotton, expecting the war. Then they started importing cotton from India, Egypt, and Brazil. The embargo tactic failed. It was allowed to lapse by the summer of 1862.

There is a scene in Gone With the Wind where Rhett Butler returns Scarlett’s gold wedding ring. Rhett was a blockade runner. But what the fans never knew was that Rhett and his peers were initially running two blockades if they were running cotton: the Union’s blockade on the ocean and the Confederacy’s on land.

Jews were involved in this trade, and they were hated for it by the bonehead politicians who had voted for this law.

If I knew how to use Photoshop, I would get a photo of Clark Gable in his Rhett Butler clothes, and paste a yarmulke on his head. That might get the idea across. What Rhett Butler fans forget is that Rhett was a black marketeer. That was why he had the money that Scarlett wanted to marry. (When I think of Scarlett and Rhett, I always visualize this. It is fixed in my memory.)

(For the rest of this article, click the link.)

Continue Reading on www.garynorth.com

Print Friendly and PDF

Posting Policy:
We have no tolerance for comments containing violence, racism, vulgarity, profanity, all caps, or discourteous behavior. Thank you for partnering with us to maintain a courteous and useful public environment where we can engage in reasonable discourse. Read more.

27 thoughts on “The Day General Grant Expelled the Jews

  1. smallgovernment says:

    Jews are blessed with the ability to find and exploit advantages in a free market, it starts with the father teaching the Torah to their children and instilling a knowledge of God and His commandments, and speaking Blessings and expectation over children, that is why so many non-jews hate them. Free markets are always best for making people rich, it was the price fixing the Government put on cotton that started the Civil War, nothing good ever comes from government placing restrictions or fixes prices for any commodity. This article illustrates how hate is started by government intervention, Jews making profit in this case caused General Grant to institute an order that has caused a hatred that continues to this day against the Jewish people in America.

  2. This really was the cause of he civil war. The government lied to the people about it being because of slavery so they could get their support for the war. Slavery never was the cause and will never be the cause. Read the book, The Lincoln Conspiracy and learn something. It was the rich northerners wanting more and more and more. They were cheating the cotton growers with restrictions and what they paid them for the cotton, then selling BIG in the markets.

  3. Look what is happening now. Free enterprise is not so popular and those who would look at using their heads and working smart are frowned upon.

  4. My opinion is that Jewish culture is markedly different from that of Gentiles, and not in a good way.

    I base this on reading 'Jesus in the Talmud', 'The Talmud Unmasked,' 'Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of 3000 Years,' and 'The Controversy of Zion,' amongst others.

    Sure, there are always legal, clever ways around laws. But, a religion whose priests teach its adherents to get around God's laws — e.g., special ways to milk cows on the Sabbath without technically violating the Sabbath — ends up with an odd flock, who place an emphasis on form instead of spirit, e.g., the Pharisees.

    No wonder many Jews — e.g., Mises, Rothbard — reject their Judaism.

  5. An interesting bit of history, but I'm amazed that you wonder why "…this event…gets no space in high school and college textbooks on American history…". The Vietnam War, in which 50,000+ Americans died, gets little more than a description of My Lai and bombing of "innocent" civilians in modern history textbooks.

    Read more: http://teapartyeconomist.com/2012/12/11/11210/#ix

  6. Many people think Judaism is the religion of the Old Testament–far from it. By their own admission, Judaism is one and the same as the traditions of the elders (Matthew 15:6-9) that Christ vehemently opposed while here on earth and which circa 500 AD was codified into what today we know as the Babylonian Talmud–the most antichrist piece of literature on the planet and which is the antithesis of nearly everything found in the perfect law of Yahweh (Psalm 19:7).

  7. All of this gets even more intriguing when one discovers that today's Jews (by their own admission) are not genetic Israelites. See online book "The Mystery of the Gentiles: Who Are They and Where Are They Now?" at http://www.missiontoisrael.org/mystery-of-gentile….

  8. This article seems like it's trying to justify the expulsion of Jews from the communities in which they lived. Disgusting.

    No one SHOULD be celebrating this horrible happening, publicly OR privately. Shame on you, Gary.

  9. False.

  10. Amazing, how different people can read the same article and read polar opposite conclusions.

    My read is that Dr. North found the episode to be stupid from an economics perspective. That implies that the expulsion was not justified.

    P.S. — he's a learned man who teaches for a living and holds a Ph.D.; I recommend that you call him Dr. North, unless you are his friend or he has specifically 'okayed' your familiarity.

  11. For the South, the defense of slavery was indeed the primary reason for seceding from the Union. The era's primary documents are very clear on this fact. All other issues of secession were ancillary to that of slavery. The first complete paragraph of Mississippi's Declaration of Secession reads as follows:
    "Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery – the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product, which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin."

  12. If you tyranny supporters posting here read the originally article may be you see this:

    "For a defense of how Jewish businessmen view money and business, which upsets liberal intellectuals, whether Jews or gentiles, read Rabbi Daniel Lapin's book, Thou Shall Prosper: Ten Commandments for Making Money (2002). Commandment 1: "Believe in the Dignity and Morality of Business." The other nine are subordinate to this one."

  13. Their FATHER is not Yahweah of the Bible, no not Jesus but their god is themselves – these people were not ever the biblical Israelites of Holy scripture.

    Matthew 23:
    13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.
    14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.
    15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.

    Luke 16.31 "`If they are deaf to Moses and the Prophets,' replied Abraham, `they would not be led to believe even if some one should rise from the dead.'"

    John 10.But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you. 27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:

  14. I am so glad I do not have to make such judgments. Jews are people the same as everyone else.

  15. Fluffy in Phoenix says:

    Gary … you left out whole parts of the book where

    (a) the Jews were only a small minority of the traders breaking the cotton embargo. But BECAUSE THEY WERE IDENTIFIABLE, they were specifically targeted in General Order No. 11.
    And …
    (b) Grant regretted his error soon after, and spent the rest of his life atoning for it … keeping a disproportionately large numbers of Jews among his close friends and political allies.

    If you're going to give facts, Gary, give them ALL.

  16. It's very difficult to understand why certain peoples have particular natures to do this or that without knowing who they are.

    Modern day "Jews", by their own words and sources, admit they are not the people of the Bible, i.e., His Covenant or Chosen People:

    "Strictly speaking, it is incorrect to call an ancient Israelite a 'Jew' or to call a contemporary Jew an 'Israelite' or a 'Hebrew.'” (Richard Siegel and Carl Rheins, eds., “Identity Crisis,” The Jewish Almanac, (New York, NY: Bantam Books, 1980) p. 3.) That sentence is the opening sentence of the First Chapter entitled "IDENTITY CRISIS" of the 1980 Jewish Almanac.

    According to three Jewish encyclopedias and Flavius Josephus, the entire Edomite nation was forced into converting to Judaism and became known as Judahites at the time of the high priest John Hyrcanus (Maccabaeus):"…in the days of John Hyrcanus (end of the second century B.C.E.) … the Edomites became a section of the Jewish people." (“Edom,” Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem, Israel: Encyclopaedia Judaica Company, 1971) Volume 6, p. 378.) "They were then incorporated with the Jewish nation…." (“Edom, Idumea,” The Jewish Encyclopedia (New York & London: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1904) Volume V, p. 41.)"…from then on they constituted a part of the Jewish people, Herod [King of Judea] being one of their descendants." (Cecil Roth and Geoffrey Wigoden, “Edom (Idumea),” The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977) p. 589.)

    Note these are all Jewish sources (with the exception of Josephus, which was a true Levite,) that plainly tell you they are not the people of The Bible.

    To find out who the modern day "Jews" are go to http://www.seek-info.com/israel.htm and get the book: "Who Is Esau-Edom?"

    To find out who His people really are and why it matters, get "God's Covenant People, Yesterday, Today and Forever." It's one of the best and concise, as well as extremely well documented books on the subject. Also, "The Mystery of the Gentiles: Where Are They and Where Are They Now?" Both can be obtained at http://www.missiontoisrael.org

  17. John 8:44
    44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

  18. Predictable behavior for a cult that was kicked out of 100+ locations in Europe.

  19. The problem with me are the Zionist Israelis who are not Semite Jews but Kazar from Central Asia who were kick out of their land and ended up in northner Russia and Poland and then formed the Zionist party in 1897 and then invaded Palestine.

    Once the American people learn the different betwen Semite Jews and the Karzarian camuflage Jews the fun will start.

    By the way, seven races are Semites, which includes 33% of all arabs…to be a semite is to be part of a certain part of the Middle East.

  20. Nubbin Fingered Jake Rodell says:

    Hear, Hear!!! This is another goyim who is in full agreement with your conclusion. Dare to Dream.

  21. Nubbin Fingered Jake Rodell says:

    John G., survival of the race is more important than a temporary inconvience to its economic system. Even the Jews understand this: PM Netanyahu declared Isreal’s problems of illegal immigration and Human trafficing have been solved.” (Arutz Sheve 7) If only America’s Jews wouid allow us gentiles to institute similar laws in OUR country.

  22. Do a web search on “Jews” and “DNA” and I think you will find that recent genetic tests show the vast majority of jews are one people. The Khazar-type theories don’t appear to stand up to modern scientific analysis.

  23. Billy Yank says:

    The only problem with your comment…"it was the price fixing the Government put on cotton that started the Civil" is that it is completly not true. None of the Secession Commissioners ever discussed price fixing of cotton. They discussed slavery though…but I am sure you don't want that elephant in the room.

  24. Wrong, BY. It was neither. The main motivation for the civil war was control of Congress and money. Since the Revolution, the northern states did not want to count slaves as people. The south did. That is where we got the 2/3 rule. Slaves were counted as 2/3 of a human being. This is because of the way we are represented in the House of Representatives. It is based on population. There was also the fact that the Senate was equally divided. The northern industrialists, who had northern politicians in their pockets, wanted to either force the south to buy their inferior northern goods or pay an extreme tariff. Thats also why we got the Missouri Compromise which kept the balance in the Senate by admitting a free state and a slave state at the same time. Google the Morrill Tariff. Lincoln, the politicians, and the industrialists care nothing for the slaves. Lincoln himself, contrary to what the revisionist Lincoln apologists claim, thought of blacks are little more than talking animals. Even after the war, cities all across the north passed laws forbidding freedmen from voting, buying land, working, and even from getting married. This is your so called "progressive" Yankess of the war of northern greed and aggression.

  25. Billy Yank says:

    Oh brother…I have heard the Morrill Tariff dodge so many times that if I had a nickel for each one I would be rich. You do know that in the debates on secession in SC said it was not over the tariff. God man, do some real reading.

  26. You could potentially absolutely view your interest in the function you write. A field desires for extra zealous freelance writers just like you that are not frightened to mention how they imagine. Constantly abide by your soul.

  27. What’s up, I want to subscribe for this blog to get most up-to-date
    updates, thus where can i do it please help.